填空部分 5-2 The research found that in assessing others, many people hold an unconscious view that competence and warmth are (i)_____: when they perceive a person to be highly capable, they infer that he or she must have a tendency to be (ii)_____.
1-2 My grandma has a strong belief in all things _____: she insists, for example, that the house in which she lived as a child was haunted. A. clamorous B. invidious C. numinous D. empirical E. sonorous
10-10 Noise suppression in phones can play an important role in making cellphone networks more efficient, since when sounds that are _____ to the meaningful signal are transmitted, precious network band width is wasted. A. unsuitable B. detrimental C. irrelevant D. confined E. limited F. extraneous
14-4 Despite the fact that the book promises a complete rethinking of the factors contributing to the conflict, the picture that the book paints is (i)_____: in identifying cause, it is more orthodox than (ii)_____.
23-10 Even the cleverest use of time management techniques is powerless to _____ the sum of minutes in a person’s life (over 52 million, optimistically assuming a life expectancy of 100 years ), so people squeeze as much as they could into each one of them. A. justify B. quantify C. augment D. enrich E. measure F. extend
57-5 Parker’s model of human affairs reflects (i)_____ outlook, in stark contrast to the generally (ii)_____ premises that her colleagues in the economics department adopt in their work. Accordingly, her conclusions (iii)_____ theirs.
70-4 The report is admittedly (i)_____ : it is intended to suggest new lines of research rather than to deal with the subject in a (ii)_____ manner.
73-4 There has been (i)_____ elephant’s fabled mental capacities until recently, when these behavioral observations have begun to be (ii)____ by brain science. MRI scans of an elephant’s brain suggest that even relative to its overall size it has a large hippocampus, the component in the mammalian brain linked to memory and an important part of its limbic system, which is involved in precessing emotions.
89-2 It remains a mystery how Theobroma cacao, which scholars believe originated in lowland Amazonia, was introduced to tropical Mesoamerica. It must have been a (i)_____ process: cacao trees do not easily sprout from seed, need years to mature, and grow only in humid lowland forest. Moreover, in a tropical climate, cacao pods spoil quickly, rendering their transport from lowland Amazonia tropical Mesoamerica in a single journey by foot or canoe (ii)_____.
104-7 Contrary to popular myth, cockroaches are not especially tough or radiation resistant; indeed, they are pretty _____ as insects go. A. harmless B. average C. strong D. undistinguished E. weak F. hardy
114-6 Transportation maps of Alaska are (i)_____ in large part by what they (ii)_____: lines identifying roads and railroads. With a single track bisecting the state and a handful of spokes to the east and south, Alaska is notable for its (iii)______ of transportation options.
115-6 It is inevitable that ongoing research presupposes some accepted science as a principle. Usually no one even notices the implication that the accepted principle is being (i)_____ unless there emerges (ii)_____ that turns out to be sufficiently (iii)_____ that the assumptions underlying the research come to be considered.
127-9 In 1839, working-class revolutions have been a real possibility in the industrialized countries of western Europe, but because revolutionary groups were poorly organized and led, government and employers regarded the movements with understandable _____. A. distaste B. placidity C. concern D. complacency E. foreboding F. solicitude
138-5 The chocolate company's scientists hoped that once they had (i)_____ the chemical makeup of cocoa beans, the knowledge would enable them to produce (ii)_____ the beans' taste, which could then be used to (iii)_____ future failures in the cocoa bean supply.
阅读部分 Passage 29 For years, the leading theory for what caused the Younger Dryas (a dramatic reversal, about 12,900 years ago, in a global warming trend) was a release of water from Glacial Lake Agassiz. The theory posited that this meltwater flooded into the North Atlantic, lowering the salinity and intensity of surface waters enough to prevent them from sinking. Ocean currents were changed in such a way that northward transport of heat in the ocean diminished, and the North Atlantic regions plunged back into near-glacial conditions. However, evidence has emerged that the Younger Dryas began long before freshwater flooded the North Atlantic. Additionally, the temperature changes induced by a shutdown in the North Atlantic heat conveyor system are too small to explain the Younger Dryas.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the release of water from glacial Lake Agassiz? A. The notion that the release occurred has been challenged by more recent findings. B. The release probably occurred much earlier than scientists have generally assumed. C. The release would not have been sufficient to cause any temperature change in the North Atlantic. D. The timing of the release is such that it probably did not trigger the onset of the Younger Dryas. E. The release was probably unrelated to the global warming trend that was taking place.
2. The passage is primarily concerned with A. presenting evidence that undermines an explanation B. explaining the nature of a climatological phenomenon C. questioning the timing of a particular event D. discussing a new explanation for a phenomenon E. suggesting revisions to a popular theory
Passage 48 When studying shrimp feeding from hydro-thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean, biologists were surprised that the shrimps’ reproductive cycles followed seasonal patterns. Far beyond the reach of sunlight, and with food abundant around the vents all year round, why should such animals reproduce seasonally? The answer might involve their offspring, which in their larval form drift in the currents to colonize new vents. The larvae must feed during their trip, and their springtime release coincides with a peak in algae raining down from surface waters. So far, researchers have found no evidence of seasonal breeding among vent-dwelling species that provide their offspring with yolk to sustain them or among vent-dwelling species found in areas of the ocean with not seasonal algae blooms.
Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence? A. It casts doubt on the accuracy of earlier observations of seasonal breeding among shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents. B. It undermines the explanation proposed for seasonal breeding among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents. C. It suggests that alternative theories are needed to explain seasonal breeding among shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents. D. It describes the survival benefits to shrimp of mating in parts of the ocean where algae blooms rain down abundantly. E. It supports the explanation proffered for the seasonal breeding observed among some shrimp species living near hydro-thermal vents.
Passage 62 Much recent work has examined the claim that women encounter increasing obstacles relative to men as they move up the organizational ladder in business. This proposition, which we term the increasing-disadvantage model, is a core element of the popular glass ceiling metaphor. Despite continued widespread public acceptance of the glass ceiling idea and some consistent findings, most research to date has failed to support the increasing-disadvantage model. Indeed, several studies based on private-sector firms find that women’ s mobility prospects improve, rather than decline, as they climb upward in corporate hierarchies. In the public sector, researchers have found either no sex differences in mobility or a larger female disadvantage in lower grades.
Comparing cross-sectional national samples of workers, Baxter and Wright found no evidence in the United States, and only limited evidence in Sweden and Australia, that women’ s probability of being located in a higher versus a lower hierarchical level declined relative to men’ s at higher levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that the glass ceiling may be a myth. Women’ s scarcity in top organizational ranks may simply represent the cumulative effect of a constant-or even decreasing-disadvantage at successive hierarchical levels.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to A. compare two explanations for a recurring problem B. summarize evidence relevant to a hypothesis C. point out inconsistencies in a set of findings D. account for the persistence of a point of view E. reconsider the origins an ongoing issue
2. Based on the passage, which of the following is true of the “limited evidence” from Sweden and Australia? A. It lends supports to the increasing-disadvantage model. B. It correlates with findings on women’ s mobility from most other counties. C. It suggests important cultural similarities between these countries. D. It points to a phenomenon not widely recognized in these countries. E. It helps explain the persistence of the glass ceiling.
3. The author of the passage and those accepting the “proposition” would most likely agree with which of the following? A. Lower down on the organizational ladder, women tend to experience fewer disadvantages than they do at higher levels. B. Women experience no more disadvantages in moving up the organizational ladder than do men. C. The degree of disadvantage experiences by women remains constant as women move up the organizational ladder. D. The obstacles to women’ s advancement vary significantly from country to country. E. Women face some disadvantage at each stage of the organizational ladder.